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Cutthroat Trout
Cutthroat Trout
Cutthroat trout

​​​​​​​​Cutthroat Trout Conservation​​

The most diverse trout species in North America, the historical distribution of cutthroat trout covers the broadest range of any stream dwelling trout in the Western Hemisphere. The rugged topography of their range has lead to isolation, which in turn has given rise to fourteen recognized subspecies. Four of these evolved in Colorado: the Colorado River cutthroat trout in drainages west of the continental divide, Greenback cutthroat trout in the South Platte and Arkansas River drainages, and the Rio Grande cutthroat trout in streams that drain into the San Luis Valley. In addition, the yellowfin cutthroat trout was historically found in Twin Lakes at the headwaters of the Arkansas drainage. Unfortunately, this predator that grew to over 10 lbs, is now extinct. All three remaining species have either been petitioned to be listed or are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act. Dramatic reductions in their range have been precipitated primarily by the introduction of nonnative salmonids. Specifically rainbow trout that hybridize with cutthroat trout, and brook and brown trout that tend to replace them in streams and rivers. In an effort to preserve the legacy of these fish, multi-agency conservation teams have been established for each subspecies.

​Cutthroat Trout Recovery and Conservation Team documents:

Colorado River cutthroat trout

Greenback cutthroat trout

Rio Grande cutthroat trout

Cutthroat Trout​ Research


New genetic research led by University of Colorado scientists has produced several fascinating discoveries​ about Colorado's native cutthroat trout - including the location of the last surviving wild population of the federally protected greenback cutthroat trout.

Researchers analyzed DNA extracted from wild trout and from museum specimens collected from sites around Colorado and New Mexico as far back as 1856, then used that genetic data as a baseline for understanding the current distribution of Colorado's native cutthroat trout.

In addition to identifying the one remaining "true" greenback population, researchers identified two distinct genetic lineages within the range of Colorado River cutthroat trout, one in northwest Colorado and the other centered around the Gunnison River basin. Further research will be needed to understand the relationship between these two lineages.

In all, six lineages of cutthroat appear to have evolved in Colorado, with native ranges that roughly correspond to major drainage basins in the state. The greenback cutthroat trout, Colorado's state fish, was native to the drainages of the South Platte, while the long extinct yellowfin cutthroat trout of Twin Lakes actually appears to have been the native trout of the Arkansas River Basin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout still can be found in streams that drain into the San Luis Valley, while a lineage that used to call the San Juan basin home appears to be extinct as well. More research will be required to resolve whether the remaining two lineages that can be found across Colorado’s western slope are indeed two distinct subspecies – that work is ongoing.

Cutthroat Trout Range Map

Native ranges of Colorado's six distinct lineages of cutthroat trout follow major drainage basins.

Meristics report cover

Given that additional lineages of our native cutthroat trout were identified with the DNA testing above, we wanted to determine if these lineages displayed different physical characteristics as well.  This is particularly important since it has been argued that genetics should not be the sole factor in determining taxonomic distinctions, and that morphological traits (visual characteristics) are often better suited for discriminating taxa.  A recent comprehensive study​ examined the relationship between the differences implied by the DNA and the morphology of these fish.  Indeed, it appears that these new lineages can also be identified by examining morphological traits as well.

Technical Reports

Cutthroat trout culture

Technical Reports

Cutthroat trout in a changing climate

Much has been written about the affect of a changing climate on native cutthroat trout in streams (see Dan Isaak's climate blog), but lake systems have been largely ignored​. Researchers at the USGS and Colorado State University have now focused attention on this important topic in a new report.

Technical Reports

Monitoring Native Cutthroat Trout Populations


Stream MonitoringBiologists with the Colorado Parks and Wildlife (CPW) survey many stream cutthroat trout populations every year. These surveys typically are conducted with electrofishing gear on several stream reaches where the habitat appears representative of the remainder of the system. There is increasing concern over how representative the current approach for monitoring cutthroat populations really is, and whether it is the best approach for determining stability and other population characteristics through time. This study explores the variability in population size and structure along a stream course to evaluate the traditional sampling approach, and determine what modifications might improve it.


Estimating the size of fish populations in lakes is one of the long-standing challenges facing fish biologists. While CPW managers have long used electrofishing to estimate the size of trout populations in streams, those same approaches do not work well in lake environments. The only reliable way to estimate population size in trout lakes at this point is by marking a portion of the population, then recapturing them at a later date with a second survey. Examining the proportion of the population that is marked on this second event, allows estimation of the total population size. That type of mark-recapture project can be very time-consuming and often lacks the precision to provide meaningful results.

Hydroacoustic SystemAs part of the process for delisting greenback cutthroat trout (Colorado’s state fish) under the Federal Endangered Species Act, biologists must demonstrate that a minimum number of fish exist in each lake conservation population as proof of viability. Historically this would have been demonstrated using mark-recapture studies, but in addition to being labor intensive and imprecise, methods used to capture fish for such a study (such as gill nets or traps) might result in injury or mortality to the target species - an unacceptable risk when working with a threatened fish. Unfortunately little work has been done to count trout with hydroacoustic gear because they are so surface oriented, and therefore difficult to locate with a downward pointing beam. Researchers with the CPW and US Fish and Wildlife Service have modified their traditional hydroacoustic system to count trout in high mountain lakes by pointing a narrow beam transducer to the side rather than down so that it the sound beam just skims under the surface where the trout reside. By sweeping the surface of the lake with sound while running parallel transects, counts on returning fish echoes compare favorably with traditional mark-recapture estimates, but are much less labor intensive to generate, and provide much tighter confidence intervals on population size.

A string of mules can pack this hydroacoustic system and pontoon boat deep into the backcountry where the bulk of these greenback cutthroat trout populations persist.Though not trivial, a string of mules can pack this hydroacoustic system and pontoon boat deep into the backcountry where the bulk of these greenback cutthroat trout populations persist. Since most of these high mountain lakes are small, surveys can be repeated in the same day to generate more robust population estimates. With this system, biologists now have a rapid, noninvasive, assessment tool to generate precise estimates of trout population size in high mountain lakes.

Secure native cutthroat trout fishery at Trappers Lake, Colorado

Trappers Lake. Photo by Kevin Rogers.Trappers Lake historically was home to Colorado’s premier wild Colorado River cutthroat trout fishery. Unfortunately, a variety of factors have served to suppress the current population as well as marginalize the value of the fishery due to introgression with Yellowstone cutthroat trout. Recent genetic surveys have revealed that the remaining cutthroat trout are a hybrid swarm. Reduced cutthroat trout numbers have been attributed to a burgeoning brook trout population that is now being thinned by fall trapping efforts. In addition, whirling disease invaded the population in the late 1990s, and has now firmly established itself suppressing recruitment of cutthroat trout further. In an effort to control the spread of the disease, anglers are reminded to decontaminate their gear after fishing at Trappers Lake particularly before heading into the higher elevation lakes such as Little Trappers Lake that remain free of the parasite.​