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  1. ​Athearn F.J. An Isolated Empire: A History of Northwestern Colorado.  1981. State Office Bureau of Land Management. Denver, Colorado. 1981. Third Edition

  2. Vale, T. R. Presettlement vegetation in the sagebrush grass area of the Intermountain West. 1975 Journal of Range Management. 28(1): 32-36.

  3. Gruell  G. E. Post-1900 Mule Deer Irruptions in the Intermountain West: Principle Cause and Influences.1986. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station. Ogden, UT General Technical Report INT-206 

  4. Barrows P., J. Holmes., Colorado's Wildlife Story. 1990. Colorado Division of Wildlife. 

  5. Wagner, F. H. Livestock grazing and the livestock industry. In: Brokaw, H., ed. Wildlife in America. 1978. Washington, DC: Council on Economic Quality; 121-145.

  6. Cottam, W. P.; Stewart, G. Plant succession as a result of grazing and of meadow desiccation by erosion since settlement in 1862. 1940.  Journal of Forestry. 38: 613-626

  7. Gill B. Declining Mule Deer Populations in Colorado: Reasons and Responses. Bruce Gill. Special Report Number 27.2001. Colorado Division of Wildlife. 

  8. McArdle, R. E.; Costello, D. F. The virgin range. In: The western range. Senate Document No. 99 Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1936: 71-80.

  9. Murie, O. J. The elk of North America. Harrisburg, PA, and Washington, DC: Stackpole Co. and Wildlife  Management Institute; 1951. 376 p.

  10. A Review Of Livestock Grazing And Range Management In Utah.
    Ellie Leydsman McGinty, Ben Baldwin, Roger Banner PROJECT SPONSOR  State of Utah. Governor's Public Lands Policy Coordination Office CONTRACT Setting the Stage for a Livestock Grazing Policy in Utah.  State of Utah Control No. 080720 Utah State University Control No. 080300 February 2009

  11. Changes in key mule deer habitat during the second half of the 20th century. A combined landscape and community level assessment of vegetation in semi-arid communities of western Colorado. N.Thompson Hobbs, David M. Theobald, Daniel J. Manier, Robin M. Reich, Mohammed A. Kalkhan.  The Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University.  Report to the Colorado Division of Wildlife.  July 2004

  12. Watkins, B. E., C. J. Bishop, E. J. Bergman, A. Bronson, B. Hale, B. F. Wakeling, L. H. Carpenter, and D. W. Lutz. 2007. Habitat Guidelines for Mule Deer: Colorado Plateau Shrubland and Forest Ecoregion. Mule Deer Working Group, Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

  13. Mark A. Hurley, James W. Unsworth, Peter Zager, Mark Hebblewhite, Edward O. Garton, Debra M. Montgomery, John R. Skalski, and Craig L. Maycock. 2011. Demographic Response of Mule Deer to Experimental Reduction of Coyotes and Mountain Lions in Southeastern Idaho. Wildlife Monographs: Number 178, pg(s) 1-33 doi: 10.1002/wmon.4


  15. Bishop, C. J., G. C. White, D. J. Freddy, B. E. Watkins, T. R. Stephenson. 2008. Effect of Enhanced Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Rate of Change. Wildlife Monographs 172:1–28

  16. Bergman, E. J., C. J. Bishop, D. J. Freddy, G. C. White, and P. F. Doherty, Jr.  2012. Effect of habitat management on overwinter survival of mule deer fawns in Colorado.  Journal of Wildlife Management: in press

  17. Bergman, E.J., B. E. Watkins, C.J. Bishop, P.M. Lukacs, M. Lloyd. 2011.  Biological and Socio-Economic Effects of Statewide Limitation of Deer Licenses in Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management, 75(6):1443-1452. 2011.

  18. Fielder citation

  19. Anderson, C. R., C. J. Bishop. 2011. Population Performance of Piceance Basin Mule Deer in Response to Natural Gas Resource Extraction and Mitigation Efforts to Address Human Activity and Habitat Degradation. Job Progress Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, USA 


  21. Johnson, H., Theobald, D., Balzer, T., Garner,J. 2013.  Quantifying Loss and Degradation of Mule Deer Habitat across Western Colorado. Research Plan.  Colorado Parks and Wildlife.